(Itzkovich, Averbuch, Elazar, & Katz, 2000)

The LOTCA battery is used to assess adult persons with neurological deficits and mental health. It includes 25 subtests in 6 cognitive areas, orientation, visual and spatial perception, praxis, visuomotor organization and thinking operations. Scoring is on an ordinal scale of 1-4 (1-severe deficit and 4-average performance), except for orientation scores that range from 1-8, and categorization where the range is 1-5. Reliability, validity and standards of performance, for the LOTCA, are available for brain injured adult patients, patients following stroke, schizophrenic patients, healthy adults and healthy children (see references). The instrument is available in English, Spanish and Hebrew.

Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment-Geriatric (LOTCA-G)

(Itzkovich, Elazar, & Katz, 1996)

The LOTCA-G is a version of the LOTCA battery for adults. The main changes relate to sensory motor deterioration in normal aging, therefore, items were enlarged, details were reduced, subtests were shorten so that the total time was reduced and memory subtests were added. The LOTCA-G includes 23 subtests in 7 cognitive areas, orientation, visual and spatial perception, praxis, visuomotor organization, thinking operations and memory. Scoring is on an ordinal scale of 1-4 (1-severe deficit and 4-average performance), except for orientation were scores range from 1-8. The test is a performance test with minimal verbal requirement except for orientation. Memory includes delayed recall and recognition. The test takes about 30-45 minutes to administer and total time is recorded. Construct validity was determined for the LOTCA-G comparing healthy elderly and patients following stroke as well as patients with dementia showing significant differences between the groups. Furthermore, taking into account also age related decline in cognitive function the battery was found to differentiate between healthy elderly and adults and those following stroke (Katz, Elazar, & Itzkovich, 1995; Bar Haim Erez & Katz, 2003). The instrument is available in English and Hebrew.

 

Annes, G., Katz, N. & Cermak, S. (1996). Comparison of younger and older healthy American adults on the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment. Occupational Therapy International, 3, 157-173.

Averbuch, S. & Katz, N. (1988). Assessment of perceptual cognitive performance: comparison of psychiatric and brain injured adult patients. Occupational Therapy in Mental Health, 8, 57-72.

Averbuch, S. & Katz, N. (1991). Age level standards of the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA). Israel Journal of Occupational Therapy. Special Issue October, E1-E15.

Bar-Haim Erez, A., & Katz, N. (2003). Cognitive profiles of individuals with dementia and healthy elderly: The Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA-G). Physical and Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics, 4,

Cermak, S. A., Katz, N., McGuire, E., Greenbaum, S., Peralta, C. & Flanagan, V.M. (1995). Performance of American and Israeli individuals with CVA on the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA). American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 49, 500-506.

Katz, N., Itzkovich, M., Avrtbuch, S., & Elazar, B. (1989). The Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA) battery for brain injured patients: Reliability and validity. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 43, 184-192.

Katz, N., Hefner, D. & Reuben, R. (1990). Measuring clinical change in cognitive rehabilitation of patients with brain damage: two cases, TBI and CVA. Occupational Therapy in Health Care, 7, 23-43.

Katz, N., Elazar, B. & Itzkovich, M.(1995). Construct validity of a geriatric version of the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA) battery. Physical and Occupational Therapy in Geriatric, 13, 31-46.

Katz, N., Champegn, D., & Cermak, S.A. (1997). Performance of younger and older adults on three versions of a puzzle reproduction task. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 51, 562-568.

Katz, N., Hartman Maeir, A., Ring, H., & Soroker, N. (1999).Functional disability and rehabilitation outcome in right-hemispheric-damaged patients with and without unilateral spatial neglect.Archives of Physical Medicine Rehabilitation. 80, 379-384.

Katz, N., Hartman Maeir, A., Ring, H., & Soroker, N. (2000). Relationship of cognitive performance and daily function of clients following right hemisphere stroke: Predictive and ecological validity of the LOTCA battery. Occupational Therapy Journal of Research. 20, 3-17.

Katz, N., Kizony, R., & Parush, S. (2002). Cross-cultural comparison and developmental change of Ethiopian, Bedouin and Main stream Israeli children’s cognitive performance. Occupational Therapy Journal of Research, 22, 1-10.

Parush, S., Sharoni, C., Hahn-Markowitz, J., & Katz, N. (2000). Perceptual, motor and cognitive performance components of Bedouin children in Israel. Occupational Therapy International.7, 216-231.

Rosenblum, S., Katz, N., Hahn-Markowitz, J., & Parush, S. (2000). Environmental influences on perceptual and motor skills of Ethiopian immigrant children. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 90, 587-594.

Yu, P. (2004). The use of the Dynamic Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment for children (DOTCA-Ch) in taiwan: a pilot study. Unpublished master thesis, Boston University.

Ziviani, J ., Rodger, S., Pacheco, P., Rootsey, N., Smith, A., & Katz, N.(2004). The Dynamic Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment for Children (DOTCA Ch): Pilot study of inter-rater and test retest reliability. New Zealand Journal of Occupational Therapy, 51, 17-24.

To be submitted shortly:

Katz, N., Traub Bar-Ilan, R., Golstand, S., & Parush, S. The dynamic occupational therapy cognitive assessment for children (DOTCA-Ch): A new instrument for assessing learning potential. American Journal of Occupational Therapy,

Publications that use the LOTCA among their instruments:

Chwen-Yng, S., Chang, J.J., Chen, H.M., Chin-Jung, S., Chien, T.H., & Huang, M.H. (2000). Perceptual differences between stroke patients with cerebral infarction and intracerebral hemorrhage. Arichives of Physical Medicine Rehabilitation. 81, 706-714.

Jang, Y., Hwang, M.-T., & Li, W. (1997). A work oriented occupational therapy programme for individuals with physical disabilities. Occupational Therapy International, 4, 304-316.

Josman, N., & Katz, N. (1998). Relationships of categorization tests’ performance and task performance: A comparison study of CVA and healthy individuals. NeuroRehabilitation Journal, 11, 201-210.

Josman, N., & Katz, N. Relationships of categorization abilities on tests and daily tasks in patients with schizophrenia, post-stroke and healthy controls. Psychiatry Research, in press.

Lieberman, D., Fried, V., Castel, H., Weitzmann, S., Lowenthal, M. N., & Galinsky, D. (1996). Factors related to successful rehabilitation after hip fracture: a case control study. Disability and Rehabilitation,18, 224-230.

Uyanik, M., Aki, E., Duger, T., Bumin, G., & Kayihan, H.(1999). Cognition in 4-11 year old children in Turkey. Pediatric Rehabilitation, 3, 119-124.

Chapters in books on the model underlying the development of the LOTCA with summary of data

Averbuch, S. & Katz, N. (1992). Cognitive rehabilitation: A retraining model for clients following brain-injuries. In N. Katz (Ed.), Cognition Rehabilitation: Cognitive models for intervention in Occupational therapy (pp. 99-123). Boston: Butterworth & Hienemann.

Averbuch, S. & Katz, N. (1998). Cognitive rehabilitation: A retraining model for clients following brain-injuries. In N. Katz (Ed.), Cognition and Occupation in Rehabilitation: Cognitive models for intervention in Occupational therapy (pp. 99-123). Bethesda MD: American Occupational Therapy Association.

Averbuch, S. & Katz, N. (2005). Cognitive rehabilitation: A retraining model for clients with neurological disabilities. In N. Katz (Ed.), Cognition and occupation across the life span: Models for intervention in Occupational therapy (pp. 113-138). Bethesda MD: American Occupational Therapy Association Press.

 

LOTCA, LOTCA-G, DOTCA-Ch Instruments publications

Itzkovich, M., Averbuch, S., Elazar, B. & Katz, N. (1990). Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA) battery. (First edition). Pequannock NJ: Maddak Inc.

Itzkovich, M., Averbuch, S., Elazar, B. & Katz, N. (2000). Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA) battery. (Second edition). Pequannock NJ: Maddak Inc.

Itzkovich, M., Elazar, B. & Katz, N. (1996). Geriatric version: Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA-G) battery. Pequannock NJ: Maddak Inc.

Katz, N., Parush, S., & Traub Bar-Ilan, R. (2005). DOTCA-Ch – Dynamic Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment for children. Pequannock NJ: Maddak Inc.

Web site: www.maddak.com

Recent conference presentations:

Katz, N., & Parush, S. DOTCA for children: Comparison of children with learning disabilities and controls. American Occupational Therapy Association Conference, Philadelphia, April 2001.

Josman, N., & Katz, N. Relationships of categorization tests and daily tasks in individuals with schizophrenia. American Occupational Therapy Association Conference, Miami, May 2002.

Parush, S., Traub, R., & Katz, N. Validity of the dynamic occupational therapy cognitive assessment (DOTCA-Ch). World Congress of Occupational Therapy, Stockholm, June 2002.

Katz, N., & Bar-Haim Erez, A. Performance on the LOTCA-G of persons with dementia compared to healthy elderly. World Congress of Occupational Therapy, Stockholm, June 2002.

Katz, N., Traub, R., & Parus, S. Dynamic Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment for children (DOTCA-Ch): Performance of Brain Injured Children. 2nd Congress of the International Society of Physical Rehabilitation Medicine ISPRM, Prague, May 2003.

Katz, N., & Parush, S. The Dynamic Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment for Children (DOTCA-Ch) workshop. American Occupational Therapy Association Conference, AOTA, Washington DC, June 2003.