Cognitive Disabilities Model Reference List Print E-mail
Compiled by: Sarah Austin MS, OTR/L



Allen, C. K. (1982). Independence through activity: The practice of occupational therapy (psychiatry). American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 36(11), 731-739.

Allen, C. K. (1985). Occupational therapy for psychiatric diseases: Measurement and management of cognitive disabilities. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company.

Allen, C. K. (1987). Activity: Occupational therapy's treatment method. 1987 Eleanor Clarke Slagle lecture. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 41(9), 563-575.

Allen, C. K. (1988a). Cognitive disabilities. In S. Robinson (Ed.), Mental health focus: American Occupational Therapy Association.

Allen, C. K. (1988b). Occupational therapy: Functional assessment of the severity of mental disorders. Hospital & Community Psychiatry, 39(2), 140-142.

Allen, C. K. (1989). Treatment plans in cognitive rehabilitation. Occupational Therapy Practice, 1(1), 1-8.

Allen, C. K. (1990b). Development of a research tradition. American Occupational Therapy Association, Mental Health Special Interest Section Newsletter., 13(2), 1-3.

Allen, C. K. (1991a). Cognitive disabilities and reimbursement for rehabilitation and psychiatry. Journal of Insurance Medicine, 23(4), 245-247.

Allen, C. K. (1991b). Crafts program utilizes abilities of cognitively disabled. Provider, 17(12), 35.

Allen, C. K. (1992b). Cognitive disabilities. In N. Katz (Ed.), Cognitive rehabilitation: Models for intervention in occupational therapy. Boston, MA: Andover.

Allen, C. K. (1994). Letter to the Editor. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 62(1), 49.

Allen, C. K., & Allen, R. E. (1987). Cognitive disabilities: Measuring the social consequences of mental disorders. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 48, 185-190.

Allen, C. K., & Blue, T. (1998). Cognitive disabilities model: How to make clinical judgments. In N. Katz (Ed.), Cognition and occupation in rehabilitation: Cognitive models for intervention in occupational therapy (pp. 225-280). Bethesda, MD: American Occupational Therapy Association.

Allen, C. K., Earhart, C. A., & Blue, T. (1992). Occupational therapy treatment goals for the physically and cognitively disabled. Bethesda, MD: American Occupational Therapy Association.

Allen, C. K., Earhart, C. A., & Blue, T. (1995). Understanding cognitive performance modes. Ormond Beach, FL: Allen Conferences.

Allen, C. K., & Mendel, W. M. (1982). Chronic illnesses and staff burn out: Revised expectations for change in the supportive-care model. International Journal of Partial Hospitalization, 1, 191-201.

Allen, C. K., & Robertson, S. C. (Eds.). (1993). A study guide of occupational therapy treatment goals for the physically and cognitively disabled. Rockville, MD: American Occupational Therapy Association.

Bakke, B. L., Kvale, S., Burns, T., & McCarten, J. R. (1994). Multicomponent intervention for agitated behavior in a person with Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27(1), 175-176.

Bar-Yosef, C., Weinblatt, N., & Katz, N. (1999). Reliability and validity of the Cognitive Performance Test (CPT) in an elderly population in Israel. Physical and Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics, 17(1), 65-79.

Bieber, D. C., & Keller, B. (2005). Falls and the client with dementia: Using the occupational profile and Allen cognitive level to direct care. Gerontology: Special Interest Section Quarterly, 28(2), 1-3.

Black, P., & Glickman, N. S. (2006). Demographics, Psychiatric Diagnoses and Other Characteristics of North American Deaf and Hard of Hearing Inpatients. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 15(3), 303-321.

Brown, C. (2000). Clinical interpretation of "A comparison of the Allen Cognitive Level Test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in adults with schizophrenia". American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 54(2), 134-136.

Burke, M. S., Josephson, A., & Sebastian, C. S. (1995). Clozapine for the treatment of adolescents with schizophrenia. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 34(2), 127-128.

Burns, T. (1992). The Cognitive Performance Test: An approach to cognitive level assessment in Alzheimer's disease. In C. K. Allen, Earhart, C. A. & T. Blue (Eds.), Occupational therapy treatment goals for the physically and cognitively disabled (pp. 46-50). Bethesda, MD: American Occupational Therapy Association.

Burns, T., McCarten, J. R., Adler, G., Bauer, M., & Kuskowski, M. A. (2004). Effects of repetitive work on maintaining function in Alzheimer's disease patients. American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias, 19(1), 39-44.

Burns, T., Mortimer, J. A., & Merchak, P. (1994). Cognitive Performance Test: A new approach to functional assessment in Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 7(1), 46-54.

Carmel, R., Katz, N., & Modai, I. (1996). Construct validity of the Allen Cognitive Level (ACL) test: Relationship of cognitive level to hand dexterity in a group of adult inpatients suffering from major depression. The Israel Journal of Occupational Therapy, 5(4), E230-231.

Chan, C., Ray, S., & Trudeau, S. (2001). The development and reliability of the Cantonese version of the Allen Cognitive Level Screen. Occupation Therapy International, 8(4), 287-300.

Conroy, M. C. (1998). Allen's cognitive levels with people who are dementing. British Journal of Therapy & Rehabilitation, 5(1), 21-26.

Cusick, A., & Harai, H. (1991). The Allen tests for cognitive disability: A cross cultural pilot study. Occupational Therapy in Mental Health, 11(4), 61-75.

David, S. K., & Riley, W. T. (1990). The relationship of the Allen Cognitive Level Test to cognitive abilities and psychopathology. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 44(6), 493-497.

Davidhizar, R., Cosgray, R., Smith, J., & Fawley, R. (1991). Comparison of three rating scales used in psychiatric patients. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 27(3), 19-25.

Donda, B., Stratta, P., & Sconci, V. (2001). Utilizzo dell'Allen Cognitive Level Leather Lacing (ACL) in un campione italiano di pazienti affetti da disturbo schizofrenico e disturbo bipolare. = Application of the Allen Cognitive Level Leather Lacing (ACL) in an Italian sample of schizophrenic and bipolar patients. Rivista di Psichiatria, 36(6), 330-336.

Earhart, C. A., & Allen, C. K. (1988). Cognitive disabilities: Expanded activity analysis: Analysis of craft processes and cognitive stimulation and response. Los Angeles, CA: University of Southern California.

Edney, A. (2005). Preventing falls for clients with cognitive impairments. Occupational Therapy Practice, 10(22), 23-26.

Felder, R., James, K., & Brown, C. (1994). Dexterity testing as a predictor of oral care ability. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 42(10), 1081-1086.

Hartman-Maeir, A., Soroker, N., & Katz, N. (2001). Anosognosia for hemiplegia in stroke rehabilitation. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 15(3), 213-222.

Hayes, R. L., & Keller, S. M. (1999). Why won't Australian occupational therapists adopt Allen's cognitive disability theory? Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 46(4), 188-192.

Heimann, N. E., Allen, C. K., & Yerxa, E. J. (1989). The Routine Task Inventory: A tool for describing the function behavior of the cognitively disabled. Occupational Therapy Practice, 1(1), 67-74.

Henry, A. D., Moore, K., Quinlivan, M., & Triggs, M. (1998). The relationship of the Allen Cognitive Level Test to demographics, diagnosis, and disposition among psychiatric inpatients. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 52(8), 638-643.

Holm, A., & Michel, M. (1999). The outcomes of an inpatient treatment program for geriatric dementia and dysfunctional behaviors. Gerontologist, 39(6), 668-676.

Ivarsson, A., Carlsson, M., & Sidenvall, B. (2004). Performance of occupations in daily life among individuals with severe mental disorders. Occupation Therapy in Mental Health, 20(2), 33-50.

Josman, N., & Bar-Tal, Y. (1997). The introduction of a temporal variable to the Allen Cognitive Level (ACL) Test in adult psychosocial patients. Occupational Therapy in Mental Health, 13(2), 25-34.

Josman, N., & Katz, N. (1991). A problem-solving version of the Allen Cognitive Level Test. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 45(4), 331-338.

Katz, N. (2006). Routine Task Inventory - Expanded (RTI-E) manual, prepared and elaborated on the basis of Allen, C. K. (1989 unpublished).Unpublished manuscript, available at www. allen_cognitive_network.org.

Katz, N., & Heimann, N. (1990). Review of research conducted in Israel on cognitive disability instrumentation. Occupation Therapy in Mental Health, 10(4), 1-15.

Katz, N., Josman, N., & Steinmetz. (1988). Relationship between cognitive disability theory and the model of human occupation in the assessment of psychiatric and non-psychiatric adolescents. Occupational Therapy in Mental Health, 8, 31-43.

Katz, N., & Perelman, N. (1993). Cognitive levels and work recommendations: A study of chronic psychiatric patients in the community. Work: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment and Rehabilitation, 3(1), 64-68.

Kehrberg, K. L., Kuskowski, M. A., Mortimer, J. A., & Shoberg, T. D. (1992). Validating the use of an enlarged, easier-to-see Allen Cognitive Level Test in geriatrics. Physical and Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics, 10(3), 1-14.

Keller, S., & Hayes, R. (1998). The relationship between the Allen Cognitive Level Test and the Life Skills Profile. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 52(10), 851-856.

Larsson, A., Nystrom, C., Vikstrom, S., Walfridsson, T., & Soderback, I. (1995). Computer-assisted cognitive rehabilitation for adults with traumatic brain damage: Four case studies. Occupation Therapy International, 2(3), 166-189.

Lee, S. N., Gargiullo, A., Brayman, S., Kinsey, J. C., Jones, H. C., & Shotwell, M. (2003). Adolescent performance on the Allen Cognitive Levels Screen. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 57(3), 342-346.

Levy, L. (1992). The use of the cognitive disabilities frame of reference in rehabilitation of cognitively disabled older adults. In N. Katz (Ed.), Cognitive rehabilitation: Models for intervention in occupational therapy (pp. 195-221). Boston: Andover.

Levy, L. (1998). The cognitive disabilities model in rehabilitation of older adults with dementia. In N. Katz (Ed.), Cognition and occupation in rehabilitation: Cognitive models for intervention in occupational therapy (pp. 195-221). Bethesda, MD: AOTA.

Levy, L., & Burns, T. (2005). Cognitive disabilities reconsidered: Rehabilitation of older adults with dementia. In Cognition & occupation across the life span: Models for intervention in occupational therapy (pp. 347-388). Bethesda, MD: American Occupational Therapy Association.

Levy, L. L. (1986a). Cognitive treatment. In D. L.J. & M. Kirkland (Eds.), Role of Occupational Therapy with the Elderly. Rockville, MD: American Occupational Therapy Association.

Levy, L. L. (1986b). A practical guide to the care of the Alzheimer's disease victim: the cognitive disability perspective. Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation, 1(20), 16-26.

Levy, L. L. (1986c). Sensory change and compensation. In L. J. Davis & M. Kirkland (Eds.), Role of occupational therapy with the elderly. Rockville, MD: American Occupational Therapy Association.

Levy, L. L. (1987). Psychosocial intervention and dementia: Part 2. Occupation Therapy in Mental Health, 7, 13-36.

Levy, L. L. (1990). Activity, social role retention and the multiply disabled aged: Strategies for intervention. Evaluation and Treatment of the Psychogeriatric Patient(1-30).

Lindstedt, H., Ivarsson, A., & So¨derlund, A. (2006). Background factors related to and/or influencing occupation in mentally disordered offenders. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 20(3), 331-338.

Lindstedt, H., So¨derlund, A., & Sta°lenheim, G. (2004). Mentally disordered offenders' abilities in occupational performance and social participation. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 11, 118-127.

Lindstedt, H., So¨derlund, A., Sta°lenheim, G., & Sjo¨de'n, P. (2005). Personality traits as predictors of occupational performance and and life satisfaction among mentally disordered offenders. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 59(5), 357-364.

Marom, B., Jarus, T., & Josman, N. (2006). The relationship between the assessment of motor and process skills (AMPS) and the large Allen cognitive level (ACL) test in clients with stroke. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics, 24(4), 33-50.

Mayer, M. A. (1988). Analysis of information processing and cognitive disability theory. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 42(3), 176-183.

McAnanama, E. P., Rogosin-Rose, M. L., Scott, E. A., Joffe, R. T., & Kelner, M. (1999). Discharge planning in mental health: The relevance of cognition to community living. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 53(2), 129-137.

Ngoh, C. T., Lewis, I. D., & Connolly, P. M. (2005). Outcomes of inpatient geropsychiatric treatment: the value of assessment protocols. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 31(4), 12-18.

Ostwald, S. K., Hepburn, K. W., Caron, W., Burns, T., & Mantell, R. (1999). Reducing caregiver burden: A randomized psychoeducational intervention for caregivers of persons with dementia. Gerontologist, 39(3), 299-309.

Penny, N., Mueser, K., & North, C. (1995). The Allen Cognitive Level Test and social competence in adult psychiatric patients. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 49(5), 420-427.

Pollard, D., & Olin, D. W. (2005). Allen's cognitive levels: Meeting the challenges of client focused services. Monoma, WI: Selectone Rehab.

Raweh, D. V., & Katz, N. (1999). Treatment effectiveness of Allen's cognitive disabilities model with adult schizophrenic outpatients: A pilot study. Occupational Therapy in Mental Health, 14(4), 65-77.

Richert, G. Z., & Merryman, M. B. (1987). A model for vocational services. International Journal of Partial Hospitalization, 4(1), 49-61.

Roitman, D. M., & Katz, N. (1996). Predictive validity of the Large Allen Cognitive Levels Test (LACL) using the Allen Diagnostic Module (ADM) in an aged, non-disabled population. Physical and Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics, 14(4), 43-59.

Schalock, R. L. (1994). Assessment of cognitive level in mental health systems. In W. D. Spaulding (Ed.), Cognitive technology in psychiatric rehabilitation. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Secrest, L., Wood, A. E., & Tapp, A. (2000). A comparison of the Allen Cognitive Level Test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in adults with schizophrenia. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 54(2), 129-133.

Sevier, S., & Gorek, B. (2000). Cognitive evaluation in care planning for people with Alzheimer disease and related dementias. Geriatric Nursing, 21(2), 92-97.

Shapiro, M. E. (1992). Application of the Allen Cognitive Level Test in assessing cognitive level functioning of emotionally disturbed boys. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 46(6), 514-520.

Stone, E. L. (1992). Use of the cognitive disability frame of reference in a short-stay private psychiatric hospital. In N. Katz (Ed.), Cognitive rehabilitation: Models for intervention in occupational therapy. Boston: Andover Medical Publishers.

Sweetingham, C. (1996). A critical appraisal of the cognitive disabilities model. New Zealand Journal of Occupational Therapy, 47(1), 5-9.

Thomas, K. S., Hicks, J. J., & Johnson, O. A. (1994). A pilot project for group cognitive retraining with elderly stroke patients. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics, 12(4), 51-66.

Trafton, E. (2002). The adapted work program and its application in VA hospitals and other facilities: An interview with Theressa Burns. Activities directors' quarterly for Alzheimer's & other dementia patients, 3, 4-10.

Velligan, D. I., Bow-Thomas, C. C., Mahurin, R., Miller, A., Dassori, A., & Erdely, F. (1998). Concurrent and predictive validity of the Allen Cognitive Levels Assessment. Psychiatry Research, 80(3), 287-298.

Velligan, D. I., True, J. E., Lefton, R. S., Moore, T. C., & Flores, C. V. (1995). Validity of the Allen Cognitive Levels Assessment: A tri-ethnic comparison. Psychiatry Research, 56(2), 101-109.

Voydetich, D., Jensen, M., Sigford, B., & Mehr, J. (2002). Relationship between the Allen cogntive levels and the Rachos Los Amigos cognitive levels. Preimer Outlook, 3(4), 14-19.

Wang, X., & Emery, L. J. (2002). Cognitive status after hip replacement. Physical and Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics, 21(1), 51-64.

Weissenberg, R., & Giladi, N. (1989). Home economics day: A program for disturbed adolescents to promote acquisition of habits and skills. Occupation Therapy in Mental Health, 9, 89-103.

Wilson, S. D., Allen, C. D., McCormack, G., & Burton, G. (1989). Cognitive disability and routine task behaviors in a community-based population with senile dementia. Occupational Therapy Practice, 1(1), 58-66.

Yerxa, E. J. (1990). Quality of time use by adults with spinal cord injuries. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 44(4), 318-126.

Zimnavoda, T., Weinblatt, N., & Katz, N. (2002). Validity of the Kohlman Evaluation of Living Skills (KELS) with Israeli elderly individuals living in the community. Occupational Therapy International, 9(4), 312-325.

Ziv, N., Roitman, D. M., & Katz, N. (1999). Problem solving, sense of coherence and instrumental ADL of elderly people with depression and normal control group. Occupational Therapy International, 6(4), 243-256.




Last Updated ( Tuesday, 30 October 2007 )